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Advancing Austrian Economics, Liberty, and Peace

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LUDWIG VON MISES (1881-1973) 
Chronological Bibliography



"The Economic Foundations of Freedom." Christian Economics. New York 12:2(January 26, 1960)1-2. 

Reprinted in The Freeman. Irvington, N.Y. 10:4(April 1960)44-52.
Reprinted in Essays On Liberty, VII. Foundation for Economic Education, 1960. 36-49.
Dutch translation in 2 parts: "De economische grondvesten van recht en vrijheid" [Economic Fundamentals of justice and freedom] and "Welvaaret bedreigd door staatsinmenging" [Prosperity threatened by government interference]. Burgerrecht. 15:657/659 (July 16/30, 1960) 19 & 5 respectively.
Reprinted in the Indian Libertarian; excerpts in The Plain-Speaker (London). 1:2(May & June 1965)15; and in Intelligence Survey. Melbourne (Australia). 14:10(August 1965)6.
French translation by Martin Masse "LES FONDEMENTS ÉCONOMIQUES DE LA LIBERTÉ", published in Le Québécois Libre (July 2000).
Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism .

"Socialism, Inflation and the Thrifty Householder." Christian Economics. 12:19(October 18, 1960)1,3. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.


"Liberty and Its Antithesis." Christian Economics. New York. 12:15(August 1, 1960)1,3. A review of F.A. Hayek's The Constitution of Liberty (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959). Praises Hayek!s The Constitution of Liberty for its scholarly presentation of the ideal of the rule of law. Holds that Hayek has compromised unnecessarily by allowing some welfarist measures as consistent with liberty. 

Reprinted in Planning for Freedom, 4th(1980) edition.
Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"Foreword."Israel Kirzner's The Economic Point of View. Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand, 1960. vii-viii. Praises Kirzner's study of the history of method in economics. The praxeological method developed certain ideas prominent among the British classical economists, e.g., Nassau Senior. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

1961   Mises' 80th Birthday. Honored by Mont Pèlerin Society.


"Foreign Spokesmen for Freedom." The Freeman. Irvington, N.Y. 11:3(March1961)14-15. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"On Equality and Inequality: The Low Estate of the 'Common Man' in the Philosophy of the Left." Modern Age. Chicago. 5:2(Spring 1961)139-147. Although the left supposedly favors the interests of the masses, in fact statists of all sorts wish to establish dictatorships over the masses. In contrast with socialism, under capitalism it is the consumers, i.e., the masses, who genuinely control the development of the economy. 

Spanish translation: "Igualdad y Desigualdad." Ideas Sobre la Libertad. Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios Sobre la Libertad. 2:8(October 1961)4-14.
German translation: "Gleichheit und Ungleichheit." Monatsbätter für Freiheitliche Wirtschaftspolitik. 7:10(October 1961)597-605.
Included in Modern Age: The First Twenty-Five Years: A Selection. George A Panichas, ed. Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 1988. 94-102.
Included in Money, Method, and the Market Process.

"Unemployment and the Height of Wage Rates." Christian Economics (New York). 13:8(April 18, 1961)1,3. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"Niet hinken op twee gedachten" [Do Not Hesitate Between Two Doctrines]. Burgerrecht 16:715(September 23, 1961)6-7. Unemployment is not a problem for the free market since workers can bid down wage rates until they secure jobs. Minimum wage laws interfere with the adjustment of the demand and supply of labor. Dutch language translation of Mises" comments on "full employmnent, credit expansion, price and wage controls."

"The Elite Under Capitalism." Unlike slave and feudal regimes, based on exploitation of the great mass of the people, the elite under capitalism can prosper only by providing the masses with the commodities they desire. First published in Italian translation as "L'Elite Nella Società Capitalistica." Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Economiche e Commerciali. 8:7 (1961).
First English-language publication: The Freeman. Irvington, N.Y. 12:1(January 1962)3-11.
Excerpt: The South Australian Farmer. Adelaide. April 13, 1962.
Reprinted in The Freeman. Irvington, N.Y. 20:6(June 1970)367-75; also in Essays On Liberty, IX. Foundation for Economic Education, 1962. 76-89.
French translation of excerpt: "Les fruits du capitalisme" [The Fruits of Capitalism]. L'Informateur des Chefs d'Entreprises Libres. Lyon & Paris. (January 15, 1966)2.
Reprinted in Free Markets or Famine. V. Orval Watts, ed. Midland, Mich.: Ford Press, 1967. 95-104; 105-114 in revised (1975) edition.
Reprinted in Free Market Economics: A Basic Reader. Bettina Bien Greaves, compiler. Irvington, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education. (1975)85-89.
Reprinted in The Federalist Papers, No.86. James Ervin Norwood, George W. Nilsson & Joseph L. Call, eds. Waco, Tex.: Friends of Freedom Publishers, 1988. 113-26.
Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism


"The Marxian Theory of Wage Rates." Christian Economics. New York. 13:11 (May 30, 1961)1,3. Part One of address at Spring 1961 meeting of the Christian Freedom Foundation. Marxism falsely sees wage rates as the product of struggle between capitalists and workers. In reality, consumers ultimately are responsible for all market prices. The "reserve army of the unemployed" is an especially penicious Marxist doctrine. 

Reprinted in The Exploitation Theory of Socialism-Communism (Extract from Eugen Böhm-Bawerk's Capital and Interest). South Holland, Ill.: Libertarian Press, 1975. 145-51.
Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"The Marxian Class Conflict Doctrine." Christian Economics. New York. 13:18 (October 3, 1961)1,3. Part Two of address at Spring 1961 meeting of the Christian Freedom Foundation. Marx's view of class is untenable. He assumes that classes are entities and have interests apart from the individuals who compose them. Marx was never able adequately to define the notion of class. The manuscript of Das Kapital breaks off after a few pages of the chapter "The Classes." Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"Small and Big Business" (excerpts). USA: An American Magazine of Fact and Opinion. New York. 8:19(September 22, 1961)7-8. Remarks at Mont Pèlerin Society (Turin, Italy) meeting September 1961. In a capitalist economy, businesses can become large only by serving the needs of the masses. There is no reason to be against large corporations. 

Reprinted in Il Politico. Milan: University of Pavia. 27:2(1962)264-78.
Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"Epistemological Relativism in the Sciences of Human Action." Relativism and the Study of Man. Helmut Schoeck & James W. Wiggins, eds. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1961. 117-34. The study of human action is based on certain axioms which can be known with a priori certainty. Doctrines of relativism and "polylogism" are irrationalist attempts to prevent acceptance of the conclusions of economics, the best developed branch of praxeology. Included in Money, Method, and the Market Process

"Kapitalbildung und die Lehre vom Wachstum" [Capital Creation and the Theory of Growth]. Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft und Kultur, Festgabe für Alfred Müller-Armack [Economy, Society and Culture: Festschrift for Alfred Müller-Armack]. Franz Greiss & Fritz W. Meyer, eds. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1961. 159-65.

"Foreword." Louis Baudin's A Socialist Empire: The Incas of Peru. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1961. v-xi. Baudin's excellent historical study illustrates the fallacies of a centrally directed economy. The lack of freedom of the masses of the Peruvian population under Incan control is stressed. 

Spanish translation: "Reflexiones Sobre el Imperio Socialista de los Incas" [Reflections on the Socialist Empire of the Incas]. Orientación Económica Caracas, (Venzuela); Reprinted in Topicos de Actualidad. Guatemala: Centro de Estudios en Económico-Sociales. 10:192 (February 15, 1969)13-19.

1962  Awarded Austrian Medal of Honor for Science and the Arts.


The Historical Setting of the Austrian School of Economics. A brief review of the development of Austrian economic theory. A short memoir of the leading personalities of the Austrian school, especially Menger and Böhm-Bawerk. Menger served the cause of reason in developing a subjectivist economics, carried through with deductive argument, which countered the then dominant German Historical School, headed by Gustav Schmoller and Adolf Wagner. The latter denied that there were laws of economics true for more than a particular historical era. They did so in order to provide a justification for the statist policiess of the German Second Empire 

First published in Spanish translation: El Establecimiento Histórico de la Escuela Austriaca de Economía. (Colección Investigaciones No. 43) Universidad Nacional de la Plata(Argentina), Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, 1962. pp. 691-727.
The Historical Setting of the Austrian School of Economics. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1969.
Reprint of 1969 version: The Historical Setting of the Austrian School of Economics. Auburn, Al.: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1984.
Published in Spanish by Centro de Estudios en Economía y Educación (Mexico) as part of an introductory economics book.
Italian translation: La Collocazione Storica della Scuola Austriaca di Economia. Translated by Lorenzo Infantino. Rome: Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali, 1992.

The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science: An Essay on Method. Princeton: D.Van Nostrand, 1962. Mises' last book, written and published when he was over 80 years old. Mises explains the basic (a priori) suppositions from which economic theories are developed logically, step by step. Some fundamental observations on the nature of human action and praxeology. An epistemological study of economics and critique of positivism. more 

Japanese translation: Keizai Kagaku no Kontei. Translated by Toshio Murata. Serialized in Keizai Rondan (Tokyo: Keizai Rondan Sha) August 1968 to August 1969.
Chinese translation by D.P. Hsia. Taiwan: Taiwan Bank, Economic Research Department, 1969.
Reprint with a new Foreword by Israel M. Kirzner. (©Institute for Humane Studies). Kansas City[Mission, Kans.]: Sheed Andrews & McMeel, 1978
IN PROCESS: Spanish translation.


"Freedom Has Made a Comeback: Breaking the Spell of Conformity." The New Guard. 2:3(March 1962)15. Remarks at Young Americans for Freedom(Madison Square Garden, New York) Freedom Rally. (March 7, 1962). Reprinted in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"A Dangerous Recommendation for High School Economics." Christian Economics. New York, 14:7(April 3, 1962)1,3. A review of the National Task Force Report on Economic Education(1961) of the Committee for Economic Development and American Economic Association. The CED National Task Force Report fails to advocate the teaching of sound economics. Instead, interventionist fallacies and political propaganda of a leftist kind are supported. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"A New Treatise on Economics." New Individualist Review. University of Chicago. 2:3(Autumn 1962)39-42. A review of Murray N. Rothbard's Man, Economy and State (Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand, 1962). Praises highly Murray Rothbard's Man, Economy, and State. Rothbard employs the praxeological method with full understanding. His work is in the great tradition of comprehensive treatises on economics, e.g., the earlier work of Frank Fetter. Rothbard's demolition of Keynesian fallacies is noteworthy. 

Spanish translation: "Un Nuevo Tratado de Economia." Ideas Sobre la Libertad. Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios Sobre la Libertad. 5:19(December 1964)60-64.
French translation "Un nouveau traité d'économie" by Hervé de Quengo (June 2000) http://herve.dequengo.free.fr/Mises/Lei/LEI_1.htm
Included (pp.323-26) in New Individualist Review. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1981. Bound volume complete(April 1961 through Winter 1968 inclusive) containing all issues of the Review ever published).
Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"Un episodio significativo". [A Significant Incident]. Il Maestro dell`Economia di Domani [The Master of Tomorrow's Economy]. Edizioni di "Via Aperta." Verona: Casa Editrice l`Economista, 1962. 27-28. Luigi Einaudi, a post-World War II President of Italy, was a long-standing friend of Mises. This is a posthumous tribute of several authors to Luigi Einaudi, President of the Republic of Italy 1948-1955, who had helped control Italy's post-World War II inflation. Unable to contribute an article because he was recovering from minor surgery, Mises wrote a letter to Angelo Charles Casteli(March 19, 1962) which was printed as his tribute to Einaud. 

"Wage Earners and Employers." Remarks recorded for broadcast on the U.S. Steel Concert Hour, May 17, 1962. A transcript of the broadcast appeared in The Freeman. 38:5(May 1988)172-73. Mises addressed the question: "Are the interests of the American wage earners in conflict with those of their employers, or are the two in agreement?". He concluded: "In fact, good profits and high real wages go hand in hand." Capitalism, unlike feudalism, exists to serve the desires of the masses. It emphasizes mass production, not production for the tastes of the rich: businesses of the latter sort "never outgrow small or medium size." Further, many workers are themselves savers. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism .

"Tribute to F.A. von Hayek." Written for a banquet in Hayek's honor in Chicago, May 24, 1962, which Mises was unable to attend due to his busy schedule and his age. Published in Margit von Mises' My Years with Ludwig von Mises. Appendix One in 1st edition (Cedar Falls, Iowa: Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1976); Appendix Two in 2nd edition (Cedar Falls, Iowa: Center for Futures Education, 1984).



"The Economic Role of Saving and Capital Goods." The Freeman. Irvington, N.Y. 13:8(August 1963)28-33. The only way to insure a permanent rise in the standard of living is by an increase in the amount of capital invested per person. 

Reprinted in The Construction News. 29(September 23, 1963)4-5,15.
Reprinted in Essays On Liberty, XI. Foundation for Economic Education, 1964. 116-24.
Spanish translation: "El Papel de Los Ahorros y Bienes de Capital." Ideas Sobre la Libertad. Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios Sobre la Libertad. 10:27(November 1970)13-18.
Reprinted in Free Market Economics: A Basic Reader. Bettina Bien Greaves, compiler. Irvington, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education. (1975)74-76.
Reprinted in World Research INK. San Diego. 1:8(May 1977)6,11.
Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.


"Siegfried von Strakosch (1867-1933)." Neue Oesterreichische Biographie ab 1815: Grosse Oesterreicher [New Austrian Biographies from 1815: Noted Austrians]. Vienna: Amalthea-Verlag. Vol.15(1963)160-65.



"Zukunft des Dollar, Zukunft der Demokratie" [The Future of the Dollar, the Future of Democracy.] Zeitschrift für das gesante Kreditwesen. 17:1(January 1, 1964)14-15.

"Deception of Government Intervention." Christian Economics. New York. 16:3(February 4, 1964)1,3. Government intervention rests on deceiving people for any temporary "success" it has. The truth contained in the "rational expectations" doctrine prominent in contemporary economics is fully anticipated by Mises. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"Wage Interference by Government." Christian Economics. New York. 16:9(April 28, 1964)1,3. A policy of minimum wages cannot secure the ends its supporters aim to achieve. Unless minimum wages are repealed, they will necessitate further measures of interference with the free market. This is not the way to aid the workers: unemployment will result from this policy. 

Reprinted in Human Events. Washington D.C. 24:20(May 16, 1964)6.
Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.


"Professor Hutt on Keynesianism." The Freeman. Irvington, N.Y. 14:1(January 1964)57-59. A review of W.H. Hutt's Keynesianism: Retrospect and Prospect (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1963). Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"A New Primer on Economics." The Individualist. Philadelphia: Intercollegiate Society of Individualists. 3:1(January 1964)5. Praises Faustino Ballve, Essentials of Economics (Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand, 1963), as an excellent introduction to correct economic principles. Ballve was one of the foremost classical liberals in Latin America, and Mises pays generous tribute to him. Translated by Arthur Goddard from the Spanish: Diez Lecciones de Economía (1956). (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1963).

"Das Eigentum in der Marktwirtschaft" [Property in the Market Economy]. Monatsblätter für freiheitliche Wirtschaftspolitik. 10:12(December 1964)725-29. Part I of July 1964 lecture, Freiburg, Germany: "Eigentum an Produktionsmitteln in der Marktwirtschaft" [Private Ownership of the Means of Production in the Market Economy]. See below (1965) for Part II.

"A National Policy for Peace." The Freeman. Irvington, N.Y. 14(August 1964)17-19. Excerpt from Human Action. 1st ed.(1949)682-84; 2nd ed.(1963)686-88; 3rd ed.(1966)685-88. 

Included in Free Trade: The Necessary Foundation for World Peace, Joan Kennedy Taylor, ed. (Foundation for Economic Education, 1986. ix-xi.

"Indefatigable Leader." Tribute to Henry Hazlitt on the occasion of Hazlitt's 70th birthday, November 28, 1964. First published in The Wisdom of Henry Hazlitt. Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education, (1993)35-36.

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